A Chinese citizen moved to the Netherlands some years ago to enter a "living together" contract with a Dutch citizen.
After some time, they decided to "take a break" due to issues in the relationship, without breaking the contract so that the Chinese can continue to work and to be able to come back in case of change of minds. This happened about 9 months ago.
During the break, 7 months ago, the Chinese met another person (EU citizen, non-Dutch) and now decided to break the contract and start living with the new person ("living together" contract or marriage, both are open). By breaking the previous contract, the residence permit (specifically dependent on the Dutch citizen) expires and two weeks are given to leave the country. The number of years in the country were insufficient to acquire citizenship. The original 3-month visa is also expired (no visa needed if a residence permit is available).
Denmark is known to require very little documentation for weddings (passport for EU citizens, passport plus valid visa or residence permit of any kind for non-EU citizens) and to be able to arrange ceremonies in as little as 5 days. However, no visa is available in this case, and no residence permit because it was bound to the "living together" contract, now broken.
It is my understanding that the Chinese has no options but to go back to China.
From there, however, I understand that getting a visa to Netherlands is very difficult (especially if the country was left after ending a relationship). This is the list of visa types for the Netherlands: https://nl.tlscontact.com/cn/can/page.php?pid=visa_types_and_documents
Long stay visas are also possible for getting married, but the couple must prove to have lived together for 6 months. In this case that's not possible, since the Chinese was formally engaged in another relationship.
Tourist visa (cannot post direct link, use the previous one to get the specific list) for non-employed Chinese require a letter from the parents or the sponsor (point 19 of the list), but it's not clear whether the future-partner can be a sponsor and whether the explanation letter can explicitly cite the marriage. Point 21 for unemployed unmarried applicants required a copy of the contract of the parents, also not possible in this case (retired parents). It looks therefore that a touristic visa is not possible.
A visa for meeting friends (cannot post direct link, use the previous one to get the specific list) requires an invitation letter (easy, but unclear whether marriage can be explicitly mentioned), a proof of regular income (not possible since unemployed after returning to China), and again same requirements as the touristic visa (points 23, 25).
It looks like the requirements for Danish touristic visa are equivalent.
Doing the opposite and getting married in China may be an even longer trip within the Chinese bureaucracy.
What is the best way to get married? or, how to ease the visa process to get the Chinese in the EU?