The only petition/form/visa you can apply for before marriage, excluding the K-1 fiance visa, is one in which she files under the Diversity Immigrant Visa Program. This, however, is strictly up for grabs as a "lottery" and there really isn't much of a guarantee that her petition will be approved.
There are, of course, other potential avenues to pursue, but they typically fall under very special categories, such as "refugee," "informant," etc...
The waiting period is different for everyone. I was a member of the military when we did my wife's paperwork overseas. I remember being told that I wasn't going to receive any sort of special treatment as a result of this, but I do recall that within a few weeks we got permission for her to immigrate. It actually surprised me.
That being said, we had our ducks in a row for the entire process. Her background check, vaccinations, all necessary translated documents, etc... were ready to go before we even applied. So, it may have just been a matter of making things easy.
One difficult thing is if you haven't physically met your wife for more than 2 years on the date of your application. For this, stricter criteria is required to prove that you're not attempting some form of human trafficking or that YOU aren't being paid by her or some other nefarious character to get her to the United States. The process for this may or may not have changed, and since it wasn't specifically asked about in the original question, I won't go into further details.
Some other recommendations... When you get to the US and continue your paperwork, I would HIGHLY recommend performing all correspondence through a registered P.O. Box. USCIS does not offer specialized shipping of Green Cards or other important documents that you think should require signatures upon delivery. You can track the package (to a degree), but if the Post Office stuffs the Green Card in the wrong mailbox, you have to start the whole process over again if your neighbor tosses it in the trash. I know because I just had to redo the entire I-90 process over with my wife (including the $450 fee) because of this. We were advised by USCIS to do everything via PO Box at that point.
You may also want to scope out the U.S. Embassy in your area on your scheduled appointment dates. I know we arrived an hour early at the gates one day in the country we were in. It happened to be the day the U.S. invaded Iraq (in 2003) and there were massive protests, people yelling at us, etc...