How many years are needed for obtaining a degree in Ukraine? Are there bachelor's degree (3-4 years) and master's degrees (2 years) if you want to continue?
The system has changed since last I looked at the college education in Ukraine. But it would be better to check directly with a particular institution in Ukraine to determine the length.
For example ХНУРЭ (Russian) states that they have a 4 year bachelor program, additional 1 year "specialist" or 1.5 years for "magister" or equivalent of US Masters program. So does the Kharkov Aerospace University but other universities may have different requirement or program lengths(though unlikely).
Ukraine has apparently taken steps to become consistent with the Bologna Process, so if you are familiar with that, it means most universities will likely offer Bachelors and Masters programs, if not now, then in the near future.
It might not be consistent yet across all institutions, so if you are thinking of a particular university, I would recommend looking at what they have to offer directly.