So, I found this website explaining how a German citizen can apply to vote while living outside of Germany:
I would fall into the category of people who are German citizens but have not lived there for longer than 3 months and would therefore have to prove that I "have become familiar, personally and directly, with the political situation in the Federal Republic of Germany and are affected by it".
This PDF further explains what sorts of situations would qualify under that category:
As far as I can tell, it says that if a person works with groups that deal with German culture, such as a Goethe Institute, that would make them qualify, but I can't tell if that only includes actual paid work, or if it would also include studies or volunteer work.
If there is anyone here who is familiar with these policies, can you confirm whether having a recent Bachelor's degree in German Studies and relatives living in Germany would be enough for a German citizen living abroad to be allowed to vote in Germany or if they would still have to come up with a more detailed argument than that for why they think they are "familiar, personally and directly, with the political situation in the Federal Republic of Germany and are affected by it"?