I don't think so. Residence can have all sorts of consequences but I am not aware of any driving-licence-related law that makes a distinction based on citizenship and official Dutch sources like RDW and rijksoverheid.nl explicitly specify that what you may or may not do with foreign licenses depends on where they were obtained and how long you are staying but don't mention citizenship at all.
In the EU, your country of residence is solely responsible for all driving licence-related matters. It should not be possible to take the exam or exchange the licence in Germany while living in the Netherlands and, should you nonetheless manage it, the RDW explicitly says that you would not be allowed to drive in the Netherlands with it.
You cannot exchange a US licence for a Dutch driving license either, the only solution is to pass the theory and driving exams again in the Netherlands. And even if you would live in Germany for some time and exchange your licence for a German one in that time, I am not sure the Netherlands is necessarily bound to recognise it.