I am currently living and working in the Netherlands as a highly skilled migrant. I am a Russian citizen. If I have a job offer from a company in Germany (that handles everything else legal-related), will I have to return to Russia to obtain a German residence and work permit, or can I do it while living in the Netherlands?
You do not need to travel to Russia. In fact, a German consulate in Russia might reject your application because you do not reside there. Instead, you should approach a German consulate in the Netherlands.
No, you don't have to go to Russia to obtain a visa, but there are a few things to keep in mind:
Consulates require your current residence permit to be valid at least for a few months starting from the application date.
You may need to provide different sets of documents depending on the country/consulate where you apply.
To be safe, you should contact the german consulate where are you going to apply and ask them for instructions.
PS: At the same time, you should be able to submit your application in Russia if you want. Residency is not an issue here.