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It seems that in Germany, under public insurance, you're entitled to a full body health checkup every 2 years once you reach the age of 35 (https://www.krankenkassen.de/gesetzliche-krankenkassen/leistungen-gesetzliche-krankenkassen/gesetzlich-vorgeschriebene-leistungen/gesetzliche-krankenkassen-Vorsorgeuntersuchungen/, https://www.tk.de/tk/tk-vorsorgeleistungen/frueherkennung-fuer-erwachsene/check-up/35610).

Gesundheits-Check-up

Check-up (alle zwei Jahre) bei Frauen und Männern ab dem Alter von 35 Jahren: Ganzkörperuntersuchung mit Blutdruckmessung, Blutproben zur Ermittlung der Blutzucker- und Cholesterinwerte, Urinuntersuchung, ausführliches Gespräch mit dem Arzt.

However, what if somebody is over 18 but not 35 yet, but still wants to comprehensively check their health conditions? Do they have to pay the full cost of the health checkup in this case then (i.e. the public insurer bears absolutely no cost)? If so, approximately how much could the cost be? Is there any kind of health check that they might be able to perform under the coverage of a health insurance at all?

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They are not required to do it but some insurers in the public insurance system do cover health check-ups for people under 35, usually with a rather low cap on spending (€50-150). Krankenkassen.de has a list. This should cover a visit to the GP and maybe a basic blood work but a few web searches suggest a full checkup (with ECG, lung capacity, ultrasonogram and a bunch of other tests) can cost over €1000 in Germany.

Note that recent reviews of the scientific evidence suggests regular health checkups are not associated with better health outcomes and are not necessarily recommended. While they can be a routine thing in other parts of the world (especially if you have good insurance), such checkups are not common in many (most?) European countries.

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I'm not sure if this qualifies as an answer because it does not directly answer your question.

Those checkups your mention are despite the fact that you are perfectly healthy and happy. At 35+ you are entitled to go in and say "you know what, I feel perfect, but please stick some needles into me anyway." So basically you get medical attention without any specific need.

You do get a completely free medical checkup like this on public insurance at any time and any age provided your doctor sees the need to do it. For example because you are not feeling well and it's not obvious from your symptoms what problem(s) you may have.

I've had three three this year for no cost to me at all (although in the grand scheme of things I'd rather not get sick in the first place). Please note that while a simple blood test is not much of a risk, other tests are. Maybe only a small one, but there is no point in risking anything if you don't need to.

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