I am an Indian citizen who is a permanent resident Card holder in Canada. So, my nationality does not come under the US VWP. I wanted to transit through the USA for a trip to India next year. But I read that in order to transit through the USA (even if I do not plan to enter), I would still require a US visa. After some research I think that I need to apply for a ESTA visa. Is this information correct? Am I also correct in assuming that ESTA can be granted rather quickly and I also would not need to attend an interview.
ESTAs are not visas, and are only available to citizens of countries within the US visa waiver program. As an Indian, you are not eligible. There are no exceptions for Canadian residents. Since the concept of international transit doesn't really exist for US airports, you actually will need to "enter" the US. You must apply for a visa.