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Imagine one has no work permit and enters Germany with a tourist visa or a job seeker visa or a student visa. Is it legal to be a tutor? What are the legal consequences of tutoring? e.g. may one be deported or have troubles with next visa? I think that it is a minor crime so it is not de facto punishable. Will one obtain some fines(how much?) or be charged with something?

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The answers to your question depend on your citizenship, whether you have a visa, and what type of visa. Illegal working is not considered a ‘minor crime’ in any jurisdiction. Assuming you are not an EU citizen, in simple terms:

Tourist visa/visa-free national: working is not permitted. The consequences of non-compliance can be severe for all concerned - a fine of up to €5000 and possibly imprisonment. Deportation proceedings for the foreign national illegal worker. https://www.zoll.de/EN/Businesses/Work/Foreign-domiciled-employers-posting/Residence-title/Consequences-of-non-compliance/consequences-of-non-compliance_node.html

Job seeker visa: as the name implies, this allows you to enter Germany to search for work during a stay of up to 6 months. It does not mean you can start working immediately without the relevant work visa/permit https://www.germany-visa.org/job-seeker-visa/

Student visa: working alongside your studies is permitted within certain limits https://www.topuniversities.com/student-info/careers-advice/how-work-germany-during-or-after-your-studies

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