Different municipalities in Israel provide different waste disposal containers, not always the same. But typically, you will find:
- Paper products (not including cardboard boxes) - typically blue bins
- Cardboard - Cages, often near supermarket stores.
- Plastic beverage receptacles - Cages.
- Other containers and boxes (but not cardboard boxes) - this is a weird category, but it exists. Can involve any material, apparently; collected in orange bins.
- Organic and general waste - large dark-green bins.
Remember - in your municipality, bin colors may differ, so double-check.
Disposal other than in large garbage bins:
- Medication - hand it off at any pharmacy.
- Some plastic beverage receptacles - The Israeli "deposit law" mandates an extra 0.30 NIS be charged on certain beverage receptables, which is returned to whoever brings the empty receptacle in (not necessarily to the actual seller).
- Electronic waste - Can be handed off at various designated locations; see a map of those at https://mai.org.il/
- Chemical batteries - Can be handed off at most of the locations mentioned above for electronic waste; but there are some locations solely for placing batteries. Specifically, plastic receptacle cages typically have a box for batteries.
- Arms and ammunition - The police and the military occasionally have "arms reclamation drives" where you can hand off such items with no questions asked (I think). When these are not in effect, there are criminal penalties, at least in principle, for holding these items without permission, so be careful.
A few links for additional reading (in Hebrew... maybe automatic translation can help you):