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I am going to Germany as a student. It may be that after preparatory course (Studienkolleg) ends, I return to my home country for a few months while I apply for university. My question is, if I deregister my address and leave Germany for a few months, would I lose my Aufenthaltstitel?

I found some related posts 1 , 2 but they are mostly discussing about people who are coming here to ask.

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  • Strictly speaking one can own more than one apartment at a time in Germany @quantum Nov 17, 2023 at 4:52
  • Then one becomes a Haupt and other Neben, you still anmelden and never have to abmelden unless you move out of the country.
    – quantum
    Nov 17, 2023 at 5:33

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Disclaimer: IANAL!

Having said that, the Aufenthaltstitel and municipal Anmeldung should be two mostly unrelated things. You can read the entire text of the AufenthG law here: https://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/aufenthg_2004/BJNR195010004.html. It does not mention Anmeldung/Abmeldung once (except in the context of registering for an integration course, but that's something else).

The reasons you may lose your Aufenthaltstitel are:

  1. Ablauf seiner Geltungsdauer,
  2. Eintritt einer auflösenden Bedingung,
  3. Rücknahme des Aufenthaltstitels,
  4. Widerruf des Aufenthaltstitels,
  5. Ausweisung des Ausländers
  6. wenn der Ausländer aus einem seiner Natur nach nicht vorübergehenden Grunde ausreist,
  7. wenn der Ausländer ausgereist und nicht innerhalb von sechs Monaten oder einer von der Ausländerbehörde bestimmten längeren Frist wieder eingereist ist,
  8. wenn ein Ausländer nach Erteilung eines Aufenthaltstitels gemäß der §§ 22, 23 oder § 25 Abs. 3 bis 5 einen Asylantrag stellt;

Which in summary mostly means:

  • the Aufenthaltstitel expires
  • a cancelling condition is triggered
  • it's revoked
  • because of expulsion
  • you're leaving the country for too long
  • you're applying for asylum

The "cancelling conditions" here are the most vague. There are a number of following paragraphs about things you may and may not do using your Aufenthaltstitel, and these concern things like the maximum number of hours you're allowed to work as a student etc., which would probably be one of the cancelling conditions if violated.

The Anmeldung OTOH is regulated by the Bundesmeldegesetz (BMG), which is not concerned with your Aufenthaltstitel, except insofar as they'll ask for it when you register.

The AufenthG does not stipulate that your Aufenthaltstitel is linked to your Anmeldung, and an Abmeldung does not automatically trigger the revocation of your Aufenthaltstitel. You can probably get into hot water if you don't register your place of residence according to the BMG, as is required of anyone residing in Germany. But if you deregister and re-register within the parameters of the BMG, you're not violating either law and are not annulling your Aufenthaltstitel, as far as I'm able to tell.

Points 6 and 7 above might be the most pertinent in your case; leaving the country for an extended period of time. Up to 6 months should be fine. You can talk to the Ausländerbehörde to get a confirmation in writing, that the reason and duration for your absence will not result in a revocation of your Aufenthaltstitel.

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