Based on your question you are probably still an Austrian resident (but this might also depend on whether your "long periods" add up to 6 months in a year or not). Because of this then what you need is an Austrian EHIC card. With this you are allowed to get the exact same coverage inside EU/EEA/EFTA countries, that any local has access to, for the same costs.
This card is called EKVK in German, and is actually the non-chip side of your e-card (in most other EU countries the EHIC card is a separate product, which you have to apply separately). If you don't have an e-card yet, then you should definitely ask your health institution to send your initial one, or a replacement if you have lost yours.
Note that if your stay in Italy is more than 6 months in a one year period, then you might be considered as an Italian resident again (even if you work in Austria), so you have to re-register yourself to the Italian health insurance, and de-register yourself from the Austrian one.
Note that the EHIC card will only cover urgent treatments:
You will be covered for all entitlements that are considered medically necessary in view of the situation and the probable duration of treatment required. If you plan to travel outside Austria for the specific purpose of obtaining medical treatment, you will need to obtain in advance confirmation from your insurance provider that they will cover the related costs.
So if your main intent to go to Italy was because you think you can get better/cheaper treatment there, your Austrian insurance might not cover your costs.