If you are mobile and prepared to pick a place based on taxes, you might be able to use that to your advantage but it's certainly not as easy as moving around and ensuring you never stay more than X days in a given place. You need to pay attention to several things:
- Income can be taxable where it is generated. In many countries, if you have a work contract with a local company, income will by default (if no tax treaty or specific exception apply) be taxed locally even if you are not a resident. Now, if you don't set foot in the country and export your services from somewhere else (without an employment relationship), you would typically not be liable for income tax where your clients are but you need to worry about the country where you and your company are located.
- Length of time is not the only criterion for residence, some countries have other tests (e.g. you could be deemed a resident if the country is the “center of your interests”, i.e. you have your main home or generate most of your income there). And residence need not be defined based on an absolute threshold like 183 days, e.g. you could be deemed a resident and required to declare your yearly worldwide income in the country where you spent the most time in a given year (even if you did not stay there very long at all). So you need to ensure the country or countries you would be staying the longest and working from don't have any rules like that and stick to a simple time threshold (I don't know precisely about the rest of the world but I believe it would rule out many European countries…)
- The more you move, the more rules you have to worry about. To the extent that the local rules exempt you from some taxes, moving around could help you but every time you set foot somewhere, the local rules fully apply. “Never [staying] in one place long enough to be subject to the local jurisdiction's tax policies” is the wrong way to think about this. You need to find places where the local jurisdiction's tax policies are favorable and therefore to find out what those policies exactly are. You cannot assume that staying less than 6 months (or any such threshold) means you don't have to worry about it. Logically, any threshold that might apply would only exists through the local tax policies, not in spite of them. Moving around therefore adds liabilities (and complexity).
So the key to make this work is to find a jurisdiction where there is no income, corporate or capital gains tax in your particular situation. That's the gist of jpatokal's Singapore solution: He was able to set-up a business and extract money from it without being taxed (which would be impossible in most places). Having clients out of the country or living somewhere else is neither required nor sufficient but channeling your business through a tax haven is.
As far as I can tell, it's not actually a consequence of life as a digital nomad or expatriation but merely the result of a particularly attractive tax structure. In fact, if you are staying outside your tax haven when actually performing the work, you would also in many cases owe some taxes where you are actually staying and/or violate the conditions of your visa/visa-free visit. So if you can't be a resident in your tax haven of choice, you also need to find another place with lax rules on tax residence, otherwise you could end up owing taxes there (although if you work from your laptop, don't have local clients or a local bank account, it could obviously be easy to get away with bending the rules).
Note that for this to be fully above board from the perspective of “regular” countries without such tax advantages (where your clients might be located), you would probably need to have several clients and be very careful with where you go while working. If you are only working for one company and spending significant time on site to perform the work, the contract between your client and your foreign-based corporation could be regarded as a scheme to evade employment and tax regulations (“disguised employment”).
Also, I assume that it's not what your question is about but there are many taxes you also have to pay as a visitor, including VAT on the things you buy for your personal use, taxes on petrol, etc.