The Netherlands has a 30% tax ruling on highly skilled migrant workers, where expats working in the Netherlands can pay less tax for a considerable amount of time.
Since I am living abroad I am wondering if this law also applies to Dutch citizens.
It seems possible in principle but there are several restrictions. Particularly relevant is the fact that any period of residence in the Netherlands in the past 25 years would be subtracted from the period during which you can benefit from the 30%-rule.
The relevant status is article 10ef of the Uitvoeringsbesluit loonbelasting 1965 (I got the reference from an article on elseviernextens.nl)
Indien de ingekomen werknemer voorafgaand aan de aanvang van de tewerkstelling als ingekomen werknemer door de inhoudingsplichtige, in Nederland is tewerkgesteld of is verbleven, wordt de looptijd verminderd met de perioden van eerdere tewerkstelling en eerder verblijf.
Perioden van eerdere tewerkstelling en eerder verblijf die meer dan vijfentwintig jaar voorafgaand aan de tewerkstelling zijn geëindigd, worden niet in aanmerking genomen.
So having been trained abroad and stayed away for a few years would not be enough, you basically need to have lived elsewhere for more than 17 years to be able to benefit from the rule when coming back to the Netherlands, which probably does not apply to many Dutch people. Also, you should not have lived less than 150 km away from the border in the last 24 months (I mention this because your profile suggests you wouldn't qualify in any case).
This 30% ruling only applies for expats working in the Netherlands. It doesnt apply for Dutch people working abroad. Check if the country you currently work in has special tax rulings for expats.