Yes, but an agent can do this on your behalf. Since Guatemala is not a party to the Hague Convention, you have to go through a different process. From the Department of State:
Guatemala is not a party to the Hague Convention Abolishing the Legalization of Foreign Public Documents. Documents issued in the United States may be authenticated for use in Guatemala by (a) contacting the U.S. Department of State Authentications Office and (b) then having the seal of the U.S. Department of State authenticated by the Embassy of Guatemala in Washington, D.C. Documents issued in U.S. states must first be authenticated by the designated state authority, generally the state Secretary of State.
The process will vary depending on who is doing the inspection in Guatemala. Assuming that you are from Texas (as an example.), it should go like this:
- Obtain an official copy of your birth certificate from Texas.
- Have your birth certificate translated by a professional translator.
- Have the Secretary of State in Texas provide an "authentication" verifying that the official birth certificate is a true copy of the original Texas record.
- Have the U.S. Department of State provide an "authentication" (but not an apostille!) that the Texas Secretary of State's seal is authentic.
- Have the Embassy of Guatemala in Washington, D.C. authenticate the seal of the U.S. Department of State.
You may be able to skip step the Texas Secretary of State authentication, but that may depend on who has authenticated the "official copy" of your birth certificate.
It may seem ridiculous to have each level of government authenticate the seal of the previous level of government. And it is! That's why the Hague Convention Abolishing the Legalization of Foreign Public Documents was created. It allows you to skip some of the intermediate steps.
I did this while setting up a legal entity overseas in a country that is a party to the Hague convention. I was able to do all of the translation myself, and we only needed a few things to be apostilled. Those documents had to be "authenticated" first, however. Each step took precious time, and the overnight delivery service costs overseas were ridiculous. In the end, the result is what matters! Good luck on your wedding!