I am Canadian, with a Canadian passport, living in the Netherlands, I am a resident in the Netherlands. Can I work in the UK? And how would I go about sorting that out?
The answer to this question is pretty much the same as the answer to Working in the Netherlands as a Spanish resident Your being a resident of the Netherlands does not generally entail any right to work in the UK or access to any special procedure to do so, beyond what's already available based on your citizenship and personal situation.
For third-country nationals (i.e. people from outside the European Union), moving to another EU country is more-or-less like moving to a completely unrelated country (with a few limited exceptions like family members of EU citizens, EU blue card holders, etc.). In this particular case, the UK isn't part of the EU blue card scheme so even this (very small) group of Dutch residents doesn't have any particular advantage.
Beyond that, there are a number of different work visas for the UK and a few other things you might qualify for (e.g. ancestry visa) so you might want to ask a follow-up question with more information about your situation (type of work you are considering, whether you have a concrete job offer or not, for what type of contract, your age, your education and experience, etc.)
You might also find the Gov.uk “Do I need a visa?” widget useful to find more info about all this.