Here is one simulator you can use for that. You can find others by looking for things like “nettoloon” or ”bruto netto” together with “Nederland” (name of the country in Dutch, to get rid of results about Belgium).
You haven't said anything about the type of work or the level of salary but my guess would be that you can expect the take-home pay to be slightly lower than in the US, on the order of 60-65% of your base salary.
In the Netherlands, what's withheld (called loonheffing in Dutch) includes both taxes (loonbelasting) and some tax-like contributions that provide most of the funding of the health insurance and basic pension system (bijdrage Zorgverzekeringswet and premie volksverzekeringen). On top of that, you will have to pay roughly €100 every month to an health insurer (I believe it is illegal for an employer to pay these €100 or to cover the legally mandated deductible, what employers can offer instead is to pay for optional insurance above the basic health insurance, e.g. to cover alternative medicines, treatment abroad, etc.)
Again assuming we are talking about a well-paid job as a professional, you would also probably qualify for the 30%-ruling (your employer has to apply for that on your behalf). If successful, you would pay taxes on 70% of your salary, the rest would be paid to you entirely (i.e. tax-free). You would also be exempt of taxes on property abroad but you would not accrue any pension rights on the tax-free part of your salary.
Finally, beyond all the usual costs (rent, utilities, groceries…), you can also expect a few other mandatory expenses: municipal taxes (in Amsterdam, that's about €400 per year for a single-person household and €470 for a family for waste and sewage but there also additional taxes if you have a dog, own a house, etc.) and water board taxes (that's the institution in charge of dikes and flood protection, perhaps €200-400 per year).