Currently I'm in the second Master year in Germany and have a student residence permit. I know that according to German law, I cannot obtain a work permit in Germany as long as I have not finished my degree. My question here is, if I get a job offer from outside Germany, for example: France or England, can I obtain a French/England working visa when I stay in Germany, and quit the program without finishing the final thesis?
Assuming you can satisfy the conditions of receiving a work permit outside Germany, you are free to leave the country. Germany has no control over your status abroad and likewise other countries don't care about your German residency.
There might be other issues (e.g. employers in France might prefer to see a Masters degree), but that's out of the scope of your question.