My Georgia Driver's License has expired, and Georgia regulations specify I need to take a vision test if I am 64 or older, which I am. I fly in to California on the 14th of June 2016 and I plan on driving cross country to Ga. Does anyone know a way I can get a temporary license and also apply for insurance on my automobile ?
To the first part, it may be unlikely that you could be issued a temporary US drivers license. If you live outside the US (since you posted on the Expat site), are you in a position to acquire an international driving license? That would solve the issue of driving while in the US. As for insurance, rental car agreements offer that as an add-on option.
Before you make the very long drive across country to renew your Georgia license, note that the state now issues a license that complies with the REAL ID Act of 2005. It now requires that you present two documents verifying your residency in the state (e.g., bank statement, utility bill(s), rental agreement). In addition, you need a document proving your identify (original or certified copy of a valid US passport, birth certificate or citizenship certificate), and a document proving your social security number (original Social Security card, W-2 form, social security annual statement).
If your license expired more than two years ago, you would have to repeat all the tests (road signs, road rules, driving) along with the eye test. Georgia has made the process much easier, providing a tool to check-list your documents www.dds.ga.gov/secureid/index.aspx
You can expedite the process by creating an account and completing an online form (a questionnaire) no more than 30 days in advance (bring your confirmation number with you): https://online.dds.ga.gov/onlineservices/account/login.aspx
Should you have to take the road test, you can book an appointment in advance using the online tool.
At the end of your visit to a service center, you receive a temporary Xerox-type copy of the new license; the actual license is mailed to the address for which you provided proof of residency.
Using these tools, my experience at the Norcross service center took all of 35 minutes and the new license arrived in the mail eight days later.
Since your entry to the US seems to be California an alternative, if you have a California address you can use, might be to apply for a California driver's license. Information about applying can be found here, while the requirements for a license are here. You will need to produce an identity document (e.g. passport) and provide them with your social security number, but I don't think there is a requirement to document your address (ignore the "AB60" stuff, that is for people who can't prove legal presence). You will need to take the written test and an eye test, but they will waive the driving test if you have had a California license in the past or possess an out-of-state license now; an expired out-of-state license is acceptable, though I'm not sure if there's a limit on how long it can be expired. Once you've done this they'll give you a paper version of the license to use until they deliver the card.
Having obtained this there shouldn't be an issue insuring your vehicle and driving it. Once you get to Georgia you can move the insurance and swap the California license back for a Georgia license. The latter may require waiting for the California card to arrive (at the California address) and having whomever is there to receive it forward the license to you.
I wouldn't bother with all of this if you have a valid foreign license and IDP you can use for the drive back to Georgia. You'll need a valid license from somewhere for the drive, however, and you'll need to apply for that in person, so a California license will avoid the need for a trip to Georgia and back to renew that license.