The key word here is "ben mehagrim" status. This status is obtained by Israeli citizens who fulfill the following conditions:
A “ben mehagrim” is a person
whom the Army classifies as child of Israeli citizens residing
overseas who departed Israel with their parents before the age
In order to maintain this status one must fulfill the ...
I've completed the process so now I can post my own answer.
First, you have to go to the local Israeli embassy/consulate and apply for an "absence of criminal records" certificate. To apply you need the following documents:
Filled out form. I've only filled out the fields in English and the consulate employee filled-in the rest.
Address of ...
In general, it's best to apply at the consulate in whose jurisdiction you reside. The US embassy in Tel Aviv, for example, is likely to be unfamiliar with the circumstances of Dutch residents, so they will have a harder time evaluating your application than will the consulate in Amsterdam. However, the US does not require applicants to apply in their place ...