Permanent residence is a status available only to EU citizens, nationals of EEA countries, citizens of Switzerland, and family members of those people who derive a right of free movement under the circumstances laid out in EU directive 2004/38/EC. It therefore doesn't apply to you as "an international (non EU) student in the UK."
In other words, ...
You don't need a UK driving licence to own, tax and insure a car in the UK.
I would highly recommend you to insure your car using your newly exchanged EU driving licence for the following reasons:
Your insurance company might request a copy of the driving licence you declared on the insurance policy when you make a claim;
DVLA might be notified of the ...
It depends on the insurance company, and you may have to try more than one.
When you exchange your driving license, th U.K. one will have the date when you received your original license, so a brand new license might have a date of 1999 if that’s when you took your driving test.
You need to ask, but it would be unlikely that your insurance premiums go up ...
Yes, but the same page has this statement:
If you’re studying with a Higher Education Provider
If you’re studying at degree level or above, your Higher Education Provider (HEP)
can assess your level of English themselves. This means they may ask you to do a different test.
This must still be equivalent to a CEFR level B2.
If you haven't, ask the ...
You can always apply. Even while banned, you can apply. I think what you mean to ask is “if I apply, will I be successful in getting a visa?”, and nobody knows the answer to that question until you actually apply.
A little off the topic, but I recommend you to take the theory test as soon as possible. COVID restriction earlier this year shut down the driving test, and there's a backlog. I have not been able to book a test and I am waiting for a test slot to open up for March 2021. I won't be able to take the test before the 12 months limit. The UK should give an ...